Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis: List of Issues - Wiley Online Library


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Case MaterialStainless Steel (brushed) Case ShapeRectangular Diameter (without crown) in mm/inches38 / 1,5 Strap MaterialLeather CrystalMineral crystal Display TypeBinary Special FeatureBinary Time Display. Journal description. The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is a psychology journal that publishes research about applications of the experimental analysis of behavior to problems of social. An analysis of trends in JABA authorship. (7% to 26% of JABA and JEAB articles) between and Dual authors stood out in terms of number of collaborators, number of publications, and Author: Dunlap, Shelley" Mara Michele Clarke, L Reyes.

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Previous research implies that stereotypic behavior tends to be maintained by the sensory consequences produced by engaging in the response. Few investigations, jaba articles, however, have focused on vocal stereotypy. The current study examined the noncommunicative vocalizations of 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. First, functional analyses were conducted in an attempt to identify the function of each child's behavior.

For each of the participants, it was found that vocal stereotypy was likely not maintained by the social consequences. Following assessment, response interruption and redirection RIRD was implemented in an ABAB design to determine whether vocal stereotypy could be successfully redirected. RIRD involved a teacher issuing a series of vocal demands the child readily complied with during regular academic programming, jaba articles.

Vocal demands were presented contingent on the occurrence of vocal stereotypy and were continuously presented until the child complied with three consecutively issued demands without emitting vocal stereotypy. For each child, RIRD produced levels of vocal stereotypy substantially lower than those observed jaba articles baseline. For 3 of jaba articles children, an increase in appropriate communication was also observed, jaba articles.

The children's teachers were trained to implement RIRD. Brief follow-up probes and anecdotal information implied that the treatment had a positive impact in the natural environment. Stereotypic behavior has been the subject of intense study for a number of years. Although it is behavior that occurs during typical development Foster, ; Troster,its persistence in the repertoires of persons with developmental disabilities is thought to interfere with skill jaba articles e.

Stereotypic behavior is also among the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders e. Topographical definitions of stereotypic behavior characterize it as repetitive motor and vocal responses e. It is also widely presumed that stereotypy serves no function e. Vocal stereotypic behavior has received little recent study in the behavioral literature, jaba articles. Echolalic responses can also involve vocalizations that do not involve immediate or near-immediate repetitions of the vocalizations of others or do not bear a resemblance to words e.

These vocalizations can vary in intensity, jaba articles, comprehensibility, and bout length, and whether they are echos of the vocalizations of others is often questionable. One approach to developing treatment for jaba articles reinforced behavior has been to attempt to isolate the specific source of stimulation that maintains such responding. It has long been thought that identifying a specific source of stimulation that maintains a behavior can be translated into establishing other means of accessing similar sensory stimulation that can then be used to reduce undesirable behavior e.

This hypothesis has spurred productive research that has found that providing jaba articles access to the sensory stimulation that maintains behavior e. It should be noted that access to dissimilar forms of sensory stimulation can also produce lower levels of stereotypy jaba articles. Furthermore, Taylor et al.

Such differential reinforcement is also not always successful in decreasing stereotypic responding e. Fellner et al, jaba articles. As an approach to treating behavior presumably maintained by sensory stimulation, response blocking has been referred to as sensory extinction Rincover, Sensory jaba articles is typically achieved by either modifying the environment e. Moreover, altering the jaba articles feedback provided by problem behavior might be necessary jaba articles facilitate an increase in the probability jaba articles other more appropriate behaviors such as social interaction and cooperative play.

The purpose of the current study was to systematically assess and treat vocal stereotypy in children with an autism spectrum disorder. Initially vocal stereotypy, in children who exhibited high to jaba articles levels thought to interfere with either jaba articles acquisition or social acceptance, was exposed to an experimental analysis to rule out typical social consequences as a primary maintaining variable e.

Response interruption was used in the current study as an intervention for vocal stereotypy because response blocking has been shown to be effective for other forms of automatically reinforced behavior e. In addition, only these four studies have used response interruption as the sole means of producing lower levels of problem behavior Worsdell,jaba articles, and none of these studies involved interruption of vocal responses.

It was assumed that interrupting vocal responses and redirecting jaba articles towards appropriate vocalizations the child had acquired during instruction i. The participants were 2 boys and 2 girls who had been jaba articles with an autism spectrum disorder and had been referred by their clinical jaba articles educational service providers as exhibiting vocal stereotypy that interfered with their participation in educational activities or occurred at unacceptable levels outside class.

Each child was receiving intensive vocal and augmentative except for Mitch, who received only vocal communication training prior to and during the study. Mitch was a 3-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified and who received educational and clinical services in a preschool setting; he lived with his parents. Although he initiated communicative attempts inconsistently, he was able to communicate vocally for the purposes of requesting specific items and activities, labeling, rejecting, imitating, greetings, and farewells, jaba articles.

In addition, he was able to answer some social questions e. His vocal stereotypy primarily consisted of word approximations and noises, jaba articles.

Peter was an year-old boy who had been diagnosed with autism and who was a residential student, jaba articles. He also communicated vocally for the purposes of requesting jaba articles activities and items, labeling, rejecting, and answering familiar questions, although unintelligible speech was frequently observed. The majority of his spontaneous vocalizations were for the purpose of requesting desired items and rejecting tasks, but initiation of communicative attempts was inconsistent.

His vocal stereotypy consisted of a mixture of repeated words, word approximations, and noises. Nicki and Alice, fraternal twins, were 7-year-old girls who had been diagnosed with autism. They were also residential students at the time the study was conducted. Nicki's primary method of communication was vocal, although she frequently spoke unintelligibly and initiated communicative attempts inconsistently, jaba articles.

The majority of her spontaneous communication attempts were for the purposes of requesting desired items. Her vocal stereotypy consisted of repeated words, word approximations, and noises. Alice did not often communicate vocally and rarely initiated vocally. Her primary mode jaba articles communication was through the use of a picture exchange communication system PECSnatural gestures, and some manual signs. The majority of her spontaneous communicative attempts were to request desired items.

She also readily participated in vocal imitation exercises. Her vocal stereotypy primarily consisted jaba articles noises and some word approximations. All jaba articles were conducted in a room 1.

No materials were included in the rooms during the treatment comparison that might confound the effects of the intervention, jaba articles. Vocal stereotypy was defined as any instance of noncontextual or nonfunctional speech and included singing, babbling, repetitive grunts, jaba articles, squeals, and phrases unrelated to the present situation.

Nonexamples include repeating a delivered instruction and jaba articles or responding to a request. Five-minute sessions were used because the participants alternated rapidly jaba articles activities in their educational setting.

Demands were those typically encountered during the child's instructional programming, had not been mastered i. The attention and alone conditions were unmodified, except for session length.

Materials used during the attention and play conditions were identical, moderately preferred activities that the child engaged with during assessment.

Immediate echos of the verbal utterances of the teachers did not result in consequences, were omitted from the data analyses, and were not targeted responses. Following the multielement assessment, a series of alone sessions was conducted for Mitch, Peter, and Alice.

A series of play sessions was conducted for Nicki because her vocal stereotypy occurred most consistently in this condition; however, there was no response-independent delivery of attention during this block of sessions. These sessions were used to determine whether vocal stereotypy would persist in the absence of contingent social consequences.

During this phase of the assessment, three 5-min sessions were conducted each day, jaba articles. Percentage of intervals with stereotypic behavior for Mitch and Peter during multielement jaba articles and a series of alone sessions. Percentage of intervals with stereotypic behavior for Alice and Nicki during multielement sessions and a series of alone sessions for Alice and play without attention sessions for Nicki. It was found that vocal stereotypy occurred at the highest level during the alone condition for both Mitch and Peter, jaba articles.

Vocal stereotypy persisted at high levels during the alone-only phase for Mitch and for Peter after some initial variability. Alice's multielement assessment was undifferentiated, with the lowest level of behavior observed during the demand condition. Vocal stereotypy was highly variable during Nicki's multielement jaba articles but occurred at the highest level in the play condition. During the modified jaba articles phase, jaba articles, Nicki's vocal stereotypy occurred more frequently across each day's sessions with an increasing trend across days.

The results imply that vocal stereotypy was not mediated by social contingencies and was presumably maintained by the sensory consequences of vocalizing. During treatment, data on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were collected using continuous duration recording. Both vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were measured during the baseline and treatment conditions. The definition of vocal stereotypy was the same as the definition used during assessment.

Appropriate vocalizations were defined as any contextually appropriate vocalization not directed by a teacher and included requests for attention, breaks, or tangible activities, and comments. An occurrence of appropriate vocalization was always immediately followed by a teacher comment, jaba articles.

Examples of appropriate vocalizations include requests for social interaction e. However, if the appropriate vocalization occurred twice before the teacher responded, it was not scored as an appropriate vocalization. If the vocalization was repeated following the teacher's response, it was scored as another appropriate vocalization. Nonexamples include repeating a teacher-issued comment and vocal stereotypy, jaba articles. Data on appropriate vocalizations were also recorded continuously.

Appropriate vocalizations were discrete and varied little in duration for all participants, jaba articles. Cumulative frequency per session is reported for each participant. The purpose was to systematically apply response blocking and assess the intervention's effect on vocal stereotypy.

Research showing the decelerative effects of environmental enrichment on behavior and our clinical experience applying RIRD and enriched environments led us to question whether we would be able to identify a treatment jaba articles once we initiated intervention.

It had been anecdotally noted that some children began to initiate communicative attempts during RIRD that persisted in the absence of the treatment and that enriching the environment sometimes produced more appropriate responding. This would compromise the determination of functional control over behavior, jaba articles.

If the student independently vocalized, the teacher delivered praise for using appropriate language and delivered the request if possible, jaba articles.

Jaba articles the child requested an item e, jaba articles. Baseline continued for at least three sessions and until vocal stereotypy was relatively stable or a deteriorating trend was obtained. RIRD was implemented in sessions that resembled baseline in that the teacher jaba articles praise to the student for using appropriate language and honored requests if jaba articles no additional materials were included during treatment.

However, occurrences of vocal stereotypy were interrupted immediately and redirection jaba articles other vocalizations took place, jaba articles.

For example, the student and teacher were seated in the room; if the student engaged in vocal stereotypy, the teacher prompted attending and then provided prompts for appropriate language. More specifically, jaba articles, in a neutral tone of voice the teacher stated the child's name while initiating eye contact and issued the prompts that required a vocal response.


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jaba articles


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